American Football Helpful References

Anzell, A., Potteiger, J., Kraemer, W., & Otieno, S. (2013). Changes in Height, Body Weight, and Body Composition in American Football Players From 1942-2011. Medicine And Science In Sports And Exercise, 45(5), 662.


Cooper, H., DeNeve, K. & Mosteller, F. (1992). Predicating Professional Sports Games Outcomes from Intermediate Game Scores. Chance, 5(3-4), 18-22.


Dick, R., Ferrara, M. S., Agel, J., Courson, R., Marshall, S. W., Hanley, M. J., & Reifsteck, F. (2007). Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Men’s Football Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004. Journal of Athletic Training, 42(2), 221–233. Retrieved from


Dragoo, J., Braun, H., & Harris, A. (2013). The Effect of Playing Surface on The Incidence of ACL Injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association American Football. The Knee20(3), 191-195.


Edwards, T., Spiteri, T., Piggott, B., Haff, G., & Joyce, C. (2017). A Narrative Review of the Physical Demands and Injury Incidence in American Football: Application of Current Knowledge and Practices in Workload Management. Sports Medicine48(1), 45-55.


Feeley, B., Kennelly, S., Barnes, R., Muller, M., Kelly, B., Rodeo, S., & Warren, R. (2008). Epidemiology of National Football League Training Camp Injuries from 1998 to 2007. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(8), 1597-1603. doi: 10.1177/0363546508316021


Fullagar, H., McCunn, R., & Murray, A. (2017). Updated Review of The Applied Physiology of American College Football: Physical Demands, Strength and Conditioning, Nutrition, and Injury Characteristics of America’s Favourite Game. International Journal Of Sports Physiology And Performance12(10), 1396-1403.


Green, E., & Menz, M. (2015). Success of short yardage play types of fourth down, Yale Undergraduate Sport Analytics group, Yale University.


Hoffman, J. (2015). Physiological Demands of American Football. Sports Science Exchange28(143), pp. 1-6.


Hoffman, J, R., Im, J., Kang, J., Ratamess, N. A., Nioka, S., Rundell, K. W., Kime, R., Cooper, J. & Chance, B. (2005) The Effect of a Competitive Collegiate Football Season on Power Performance and Muscle Oxygen Recovery Kinetics. The Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research, 19(3), 509.


Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Faigenbaum, A. D., Mangine, G. T.,& Kang, J. (2007). Effects of Maximal Squat Exercise Testing on Vertical Jump Performance in American College Football Players. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine6(1), pp. 149–150.


Hoffman, J. R. (2008). The Applied Physiology of American Football. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 3(3), 387-392. doi:10.1123/ijspp.3.3.387


Hootman, J., Dick, R., & Agel, J. (2007). Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: Summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives. Journal of Athletic Training, 42(2), 311-9. Retrieved from


Hughes, M. & Franks, I. (2006). Notational analysis of sport: Systems for better coaching and performance in sport. 2nd ed. United Kingdom


Iguchi, J., Yamada, Y., Kimura, M., Fujisawa, Yoshihiko, H., Tatsuya, K., Kenji, & Ichihashi, N. (2013). Injuries in a Japanese division I collegiate American football team: A 3-season prospective study. Journal of Athletic Training, 48(6), 818-25. doi:  10.4085/1062-6050-48.4.15


Iguchi, J., Watanabe, Y., Kimura, M., Fujisawa, Y., Hojo, T., Yuasa, Y. Higashi, S., Kuzuhara, K. (2016). Risk Factors for Injury Among Japanese Collegiate Players of American Football Based on Performance Test Results. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(12), 3405-3411.


Jacobson, B. H., Conchola, E. C., Smith, D. B., Akehi, K. G., & Glass, R. (2016). Relationship Between Selected Strength and Power Assessments to Peak and Average Velocity of the Drive Block in Offensive Line Play. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(8), 2202-2205.


Kaplin, L., Flanigan, D., Norwig, J., Jost, P., & Bradley, J. (2005). Prevalence and Variance of Shoulder Injuries in Elite Collegiate Football Players. The American Journal Of Sports Medicine33(8), 1142-1146.


Kin-İşler A, Ariburuna B, Ozkana A, Aytarb A & Tandogan R,. (2008). The Relationship Between Anaerobic Performance, Muscle Strength and Sprint Ability in American football Players. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 16, 87-92


Kraemer, W.J., and L.A. Gotshalk (2000). Physiology of American football. In Exercise and Sport Science. Garrett, W.E., and D.T. Kirkendall (eds). Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA. pp. 795-813.


Kuzmits, F., & Adams, A. (2008). The NFL Combine: Does It Predict Performance in the National Football League?. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research22(6), 1721-1727.


Lambach, R. L., Young, J. W., Flanigan, D. C., Siston, R. A., & Chaudhari, A. M. (2015). Knee Joint Loading During Lineman-Specific Movements in American Football Players. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 31(3), pp. 142-148.


Mcbride, J. M., Blow, D., Kirby, T. J., Haines, T. L., Dayne, A. M., & Triplett, N. T. (2009). Relationship Between Maximal Squat Strength and Five, Ten, and Forty Yard Sprint Times. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(6), 1633-1636. doi:10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181b2b8aa


Merritt, S. & Clauset, A. (2014). Scoring dynamics across professional team sports: tempo, balance and predictability. EPJ Data Sci.3(1).


Mosteller, F. (1997). Lessons from Sports Statistics. The American Statistician, 51(4), 305-310.


Myers, N., Moritz, S. & Feltz, D. (2003). The Reciprocal Relationship Between Collective Efficacy and Offensive Performance in American Football. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 25 (Suppl.) 101


Paine R, Chicas E, Bailey L, Hariri T, Lowe W. (2015) Strength and Functional Assessment of Healthy High School Football Players: Analysis of Skilled and Non‐Skilled Positions. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 10(6) pp. 850-857.


Pelechrinis, K. (2016). Footballonomics: The Anatomy of American Football; Evidence from 7 years of NFL game data, 1-21. Retrieved from


Peterson, L., Junge, A., Chomiak, J., Graf-Baumann, T., & Dvorak, J. (2000). Incidence of Football Injuries and Complaints in Different Age Groups and Skill-Level Groups. The American Journal Of Sports Medicine28(5_suppl), 51-57.


Pincivero, D., & Bompa, T. (1997). A Physiological Review of American Football. Sports Medicine23(4), 247-260.


Riley, P. O., Kent, R. W., Dierks, T. A., Lievers, W. B., Frimenko, R. E., & Crandall, J. R. (2013). Foot kinematics and loading of professional athletes in American football-specific tasks. Gait & Posture, 38(4), 563-569. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.03.034


Robbins, D., & Young, W. (2012). Positional relationships between various sprint and jump abilities in elite American football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(2), 388-97. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318225b5fa


Robbins, D. W., & Goodale, T. (2012). Evaluation of The Physical Test Battery Implemented at The National Football League Combine. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 34(5), 1-10.


Sawyer, D. T., Ostarello, J. Z., Suess, E. A., & Dempsey, M. (2002). Relationship Between Football Playing Ability and Selected Performance Measures. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 16(4), 611-616.


Shankar, P., Fields, S., Collins, C., Dick, R., & Comstock, R. (2007). Epidemiology of High School and Collegiate Football Injuries in the United States, 2005-2006. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(8), 1295-1303. doi: 10.1177/0363546507299745


Vitale, J., Caumo, A., Roveda, E., Montaruli, A., La Torre, A., Battaglini, C., & Carandente, F. (2016). Physical Attributes and NFL Combine Performance Tests Between Italian National League and American Football Players. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research30(10), 2802-2808.


Whaley, J. (2015). Why do teams keep running the ball rather than throwing it? Retrieved October 16, 2017, from


Whiting, W. (2015). Biomechanics of Common Musculoskeletal Injuries in American Football. Strength And Conditioning Journal37(6), 79-87.


Yee, A., Rodríguez, R., & Alvarado, M. (2014). Analysis of Strategies in American Football Using Nash Equilibrium. Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, And Applications8722, 286-294.


Zapiec, C., & Taylor, A.W. (1979). Muscle fibre composition and energy utilization in CFL football players. Canadian Journal Of Applied Sport Science4(2), 140-142. Retrieved from


Sports Injuries, Research cache for professional American football: